Biology 1290b: an introduction to general microbiology 1 microbes, an introduction bacteria, fungi, and protozoa can be seen in a light microscope, but except for the larger century, they were fiendishly difficult to make and use, they were essentially a lens held. Bacteria cell structure they are as unrelated to human beings as living things can be, but bacteria are essential to human life and life on planet earth although they are notorious for their role in causing human diseases, from tooth decay to the black plague, there are beneficial species that are essential to good health. General indicators of bacterial diseases can be disformed frayed fins, open sores, red steaks on fins or along the fish body, grey film on eyes, swollen or bloated belly, lethargic behavior, loss of appetite to name a few. The bacteria with a corkscrew or spiral shape are: spirilla in california in 2000, a normally harmless bacteria that cause infections in over 100 pedicure clients was. Bacteria are typically single-celled organisms called prokaryotes that may serve as digestive aids, cause disease or aid in decomposition unlike eukaryotes, they do not have nuclei bacteria contain their dna and other genetic material as a single strand in their cytoplasm, and they reproduce.
Objective: to identify the bacterial unknowns in a mixed culture by morphological and biochemical methods principle: the identification of bacteria is a careful and systematic process that uses many different techniques to narrow down the types of bacteria that are present in an unknown bacterial culture. When to use antibiotics antibiotics are specific for the type of bacteria being treated and, in general, cannot be interchanged from one infection to another when antibiotics are used correctly, they are usually safe with few side effects. Understand the differences between bacterial infections and viral infections our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics inappropriate use of antibiotics has helped create bacterial diseases that are resistant to treatment with different types of antibiotic medications.
What is antibiotic resistance overuse of antibiotics is creating stronger germs some bacteria are already resistant to common antibiotics when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, it is often harder and more expensive to treat the infection losing the ability to treat serious bacterial infections is a major threat to public health. Thermomicrobia phylum is a phenotype of the green non-sulfur bacteria it is, as its name suggests, thermophilic some scientists suggest that the thermomicrobia phylum is not a true bacteriological phylum, but a sub-division of the green non-sulfur division along with the current chloroflexi phylum. An agar plate is a petri dish that contains agar as a solid growth medium plus nutrients, used to culture microorganisms sometimes selective compounds are added to influence growth, such as antibiotics. In addition to growth media formulations being classified as either defined or complex, there are also specialized media that are designed to do more than just grow bacteria, selective and differential media provide information about the bacteria growing. Bacterial staining general discussion stains all dyes are salts ionize cationic anionic techniques single dyes multiple dyes use chemical makeup of stains benzene = organic compound chromophore = color auxochrome = ionization properties benzene + chromophore = chromogen chromogen is a colored compound only auxochrome with chromogen allows the dye to form salt compounds that adhere to cells.
Antibiotics and their types, uses and side effects by yury bayarski an antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria antibiotics are one class of antimicrobials, a. Some uses of bacteria bacteria are very in these days—in probiotic drinks, in news articles, and in scientific research about the connections between healthy microbes and healthy bodies. General bacteria summary bacterial biology discussion bacteria, along with other organisms, are responsible for the breaking down of organic waste, and an understanding of their characteristics is critical to pollution control technologies.
The presence of bacteria and pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms is a concern when considering the safety of drinking water pathogenic organisms can cause intestinal infections, dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid fever, cholera, and other illnessesnew screening test for waterborne pathogens. Bacteria that use the butandiol fermentation pathway (as opposed to the mixed acid fermentation pathway) also produce acetoin that is an intermediate of this pathway one adds alpha-napthol and potassium hydroxide to the divided medium and periodically shakes the medium to introduce oxygen to the reaction. Antibiotic therapy principles central to all good antibiotic (or any other) therapy is diagnosis several general principles can help you make decisions about initiating, selecting, and discontinuing antibiotic therapy outpatient therapy groupings of bacteria for rational antibiotic selection. Most bacteria produce a cell wall that is composed partly of a macromolecule called peptidoglycan, itself made up of amino sugars and short peptides human cells do not make or need peptidoglycan. Rrna gene from their bacteria, then use blast to search the bacterial database and identify the species that most closely matches their sequence results for this more thorough discussion of the materials follow in the general materials section the detailed protocol for each exercise is in the student section.
A primary use of bacteria is to help us digest and breakdown our food some bacteria can also help assist our immune system in protecting us from certain organisms that can make us sick parts of the bacteria cell (see picture. Resistance means that the bacteria are ‘intrinsically’ resistant for example, streptomyces has some genes responsible for resistance to its own antibiotic other examples include organisms that lack a transport system or a target for the antibiotics in other cases, the. Bacterial spectrum: broad spectrum antibiotics are capable of targeting many types of bacteria while narrow spectrum antibiotics target specifically a single class of bacteria it is generally preferable to use a specific antibiotic for the specific class of bacteria. Explain what ph is and how it relates to bacterial growth the tartness or sour taste of grapefruit, sauerkraut, yogurt, and pickles is the result of the intensity of acidity in these products the acidity of foods has been used for centuries to preserve foods.
The bacteria that make these toxins are called “shiga toxin-producing” e coli, or stec for short you might hear these bacteria called verocytotoxic e coli (vtec) or enterohemorrhagic e coli (ehec) these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria. What general type of stain is used to separate types of bacteria based on their cellular structures differential why must fresh cells be used when performing a gram stain. Chemosynthesis: some bacteria can use chemicals like hydrogen sulfide (h 2 s) instead of water and carry out metabolic reactions to generate energy heterotrophy: this is by far the most common. Shigellosis is a diarrheal disease caused by a group of bacteria called shigella † are more likely to acquire shigellosis than the general adult population 4 shigella passes from feces or soiled pepto-bismol) may be helpful 1,2, but people sick with shigellosis should not use medications that cause the gut to slow down and.
Some resistance occurs without human action, as bacteria can produce and use antibiotics against other bacteria, leading to a low-level of natural selection for resistance to antibiotics however, the current higher-levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are attributed to the overuse and abuse of antibiotics.